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is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).It differs from persistent vegetative state, in which the person is alive and some autonomic functions remain. It is also not to be confused with an ordinary coma, whether induced medically or caused by injury and/or illness, even if it is very deep, as long as some brain and bodily activity and function remains; and it is also not the same as the condition known as locked-in syndrome. That is why a thorough differential diagnosis is so important in all of these conditions.
The high demand and poor supply of kidneys in the United States has widened over the years. This has resulted in many patients travelling abroad for transplant surgery. Some of the countries that have weak regulatory mechanisms have given in to the market forces and include India, Iran, China, Pakistan, Philippines, Brazil, Turkey, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, and Romania.
The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THOA) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas.